Faced this issue after updating SharePoint 2013 farm with December CU 2014. Tried running psconfig and several other things. SharePoint keeps on thinking that some of the binaries are not installed on some of the servers in the farm. Gives you a list of updates missing on servers.
“Error: Some farm products and patches were not detected on this or other servers. If products or patches are missing locally, you must quit this program and install the required products and patches on this server before restarting this wizard. If products or patches are missing on other servers, you must install the required products and patches on the specific servers, and you may then click the Refresh button to perform the status check again.”
I trusted SharePoint and tried to install all the list of updates, it was complaining. I was greeted with either ‘updates are already installed’ or ‘no relevant products impacted by this update’ message. Updates are definitely installed already and I can see them thorough installed updates in control panel.
Try checking whether server needs upgrade or not by running the following PowerShell command
It will return true, if it needs upgrade. After running this command in all the servers, try running Psconfig in server hosting Central Admin. This solved the issue for me.